The two of three ascendancies were the topic of the last lecture by Dr. Malik. The first ascendancy was the Christians from 1920 to 1975. Dr. Malik covered this in his second lecture. The Christian ascendancy was marked by the French leaving in 1943, when the Republic of Lebanon was formed. The Golden Age lasted from 1940 to 1960. However, this was a time where structural flaws were built as concessions and compromises abounded. The second ascendancy stemmed from a the 1969 Cairo Agreement. This ascendancy officially began in 1990 and was known as the Sunni ascendancy. Major events that took place were the PLO moving to Lebanon and attacks on Israel commencing from Lebanon. The Palestinian Lebanese War began in 1975 and lasted until 1990. The third and final ascendancy started in 2005 and continues to this day. This time as been plagued with cronyism and corruption. The structural defects in Lebanon’s government have begun to show. The Memorandum of Understanding created more problems. As there is much economic despair and government by Hezbollah is not working.
These ascendancies created the current situation in Lebanon because as Dr. Malik says, everyone wants to kick the can down the road. Real change is needed but no leader is there to unite Muslims and Christians, expel Hezbollah, and rebuilt Lebanon’s infrastructure. This has been Lebanon’s problem since the Golden years ended. Compromise has been favored over hard lines and now the people of Lebanon find themselves governed by an Iranian-proxy force that inflicts terror on the people.