Did any of the similarities or differences between Christian and Jewish theology surprise you? If so, which/why? - Pathfinder

Did any of the similarities or differences between Christian and Jewish theology surprise you? If so, which/why?

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    • #1435
      pathfinderlms
      Keymaster

      Did any of the similarities or differences between Christian and Jewish theology surprise you? If so, which/why?

    • #2010
      Tina Joji
      Participant

      Growing up, I had no idea that Jews do not believe in the Messiah or that Christ Jesus is our God. I once wore a Cross necklace to school and my Jewish classmate saw my necklace and had made a somewhat harsh comment on it. I was extremely confused as to why he would feel that way towards the cross but then eventually learned that that is not actually in their belief systems. I do still have a lot of questions and am still in the efforts of learning the differences and similarities between the theologies. My passages Israel trip aided in exposing me to the different nuances between both. I think courses such as these are really useful in displaying elements that may not be commonly be known to man. I am intrigued and look forward to expanding my wisdom so I can be better prepared as a leader.

      • #2184
        Katelyn Hernandez
        Participant

        Hey Tina,
        I appreciated the insight experiences that you shared. Growing up there were no Jews in my area and although I am from Florida I met my first Jewish person in college and since then have always wanted to engage with the Jewish community. The lack of understanding between Christianity and Judaism is drastic although we share the same set of values and our histories are intertwined. I also am a Passages alumni and am grateful for the exposure they coordinated between Christianity and Judaism.

      • #2302
        Harvest Prude
        Participant

        Hi Tina, thank you for sharing your personal experience. I am struck by how many Christians grow up not knowing much about the basic distinctions of Judaism (I include myself in that category) when Christians and Jews share common “roots” so to speak as far as our faith goes. It’s also interesting to think about the misconceptions Jewish people who aren’t exposed to Christians might have as well. I’m thankful for this course sparking these discussions and providing a helpful overview into this fascinating topic.

      • #2318
        Patrick Bereit
        Participant

        Tina, great points and I’d have to agree with being unaware about much of Jewish theology. What I learned about Judaism was always from a Christian perspective and through most of my childhood, was never able to speak with a Jewish person about faith, mostly due to a lack of Jewish communities in my town. I am very much looking forward to learning more about Judaism, and our many similarities, as I go on the PLI trip!

      • #3003
        Deneisha Hollis
        Participant

        Hello Tina

        It was really good to go to Israel and be exposed to the Jewish culture and their reasoning as to why the cross could be a negative symbol to them. I think this should allow us to have open conversations about why and what believe. Often times we forget that our same beliefs could be the same thing that oppresses others. We should just practice being conscious Christians and find the truth and break barriers in communication.

    • #2021
      Clay Shackelford
      Participant

      Some of these differences in Jewish theology surprised me. Particularly, the views of progressive Jews. They surprised me because they are so different from their traditional theology. For instance, the more progressive Jews think the messiah is the coming of age and not a person. That this age will be ushered in based on their own moral actions.

      I also thought it was interesting how Jews claim that Christians want to abolish Torah. While I see that most Christians think that way, I was never raised that way.

      I also thought that hearing about Jewish theology, in general, was quite interesting. I think we should open ourselves up to Jewish theology more because at least some of this theology was also the roots of Jesus’s theology as well. I think we should entertain questions like “How has Christian theology lost its Jewish roots? What have we added that is untrue? What have we taken away that is true?

      • #2078
        Hans Vogel
        Participant

        Hi Clay. I would also like to learn more about the Jewish “theologies” and teachings. I have studied the Acts of the Apostles and the letters and looked closely at what is written there. What do the biblical authors understand about Jews and Christians? What does Paul teach in Romans 9-11, how does Paul deal with the Jews, and how does he deal with the Gentile Christians? This helps me to understand the Rabbinic tradition as it is in the Mishnah. The Talmud it’s so big that I haven’t read it much until now…

      • #2948
        Austin Pellizzer
        Participant

        Hello Clay,

        Thank you for your fascinating and insightful comment on how Christian and Jewish theology differ. When I read about the idea of Progressive Jews thinking the messiah would be a coming of age and not a person, one question stuck out to me. As age, as a whole, can be interpreted in many different ways, how would it be clearly defined and known when a new or ‘messiah age’ would begin? From my understanding, it sounds more like a cultural change than a complete change in views or theology. Who would have a say in these theological circles, and what as a whole would come about from it?

      • #2317
        Patrick Bereit
        Participant

        Clay, you definitely brought up great points and I particularly like the questions you think we ought to ask. I had never heard of the progressive Jewish view of the Messiah as an age and not a person, so this led me to thinking how this could be supported Biblically. One question I would ask is when you say most Christians may think we should abolish the Torah. Perhaps it’s just the community and Faith tradition I’ve grown up in, but I’ve never seen that. Unlike what this course explained about 1930s Germany abolishing the Old Testament in services, I see American Christianity as heavily emphasizing the Old Testament (and thus the first five books/Torah) and it’s vital role as establishing and prefiguring what takes place in the New Testament.

      • #2938

        Hi Clay, this was also something that surprised me. While I knew that there were different sects within Judaism, I didn’t realize how different their views were on key concepts like the Messiah. I wonder how each sect came to their conclusions on this and how much of it is based on the Torah. On your last point, I do believe that we have lost our Jewish roots. I feel like as Christians, we sometimes tend to emphasize only the New Testament and disregard the Old Testament entirely. We forget that the Old Testament is the beginning of our story, that the gospel was prophesied here, that it literally lay the foundation for our faith. I think the questions you raised are very important ones and they can help us get back to our roots.

      • #3004
        Deneisha Hollis
        Participant

        Hello Clay!

        I think you asked some good questions because I wonder were did we lose our Jewish roots in Christianity that made us separate ourselves from our beginnings. I was also surprised by the Modern Jewish beliefs and I think that it a very different viewpoint that would open a good conversation between them and me. I am very open to these ideas and I believe that we can learn something from each other and that is why we need to be in constant community with others.

    • #2099
      Madeline Hall
      Participant

      I find Jewish theology absolutely fascinating. Going to Israel with Passages, it was one of my favorite things to be able to speak to the Jewish community in how they view themselves and their relationship with God. I find it particularly fascinating that the motivation of seeking to follow Yaweh, the one true God, is that they believe they are God’s chosen people and thus they must. The motivation is not fear of punishment, but rather out of their chosen-ness. The question of motivation on why we choose to follow a relationship with God is particularly fascinating to me, and I would love to dive deeper into the motivation behind different Christian communities of faith.

    • #2185
      Katelyn Hernandez
      Participant

      Ever since I first traveled with Passages to Israel I have been fascinated by learning more about Jewish theology and tradition. In the Western World, we often hear about how society is shaped by Judeo-Christian values, which would lead many to believe that theologically we are motivated by the same things. In college, I had a theological discussion with a Jewish peer, who told me “Christianity is the optimism of faith”, from a story of redemption, sacrifice, and salvation this makes sense. However, after we had this impactful conversation we began to dive further into the differences and similarities between our religions. The motivations and restrictions placed on the Jewish people differ greatly from the Christian call to perform kind acts and spread the word of God.

      • #2891
        Jamila White
        Participant

        Katelyn,

        I also traveled to Israel through Passages Israel! Israel definitely has a way of making one diving deeper into Scripture. I love what your Jewish peer stated. True biblical Christian faith, and not groups of people such as the Crusaders, misusing the Scripture, truly offers great hope. I would say that the biggest day-to-day difference I have notice, is relying on the grace, mercy, and strength of Christ through the Holy Spirit. There is true freedom. We are now able to work from love rather than working for God’s love. I do find the principle of respecting God’s consecration of time, such as the Sabbath, to be important lessons to learn. Sometimes when life gets busy, I do find it difficult to make Jesus Lord of my time. In a fast-food society, it is so difficult to rest consistently. I do admire how everything slowed down and stopped during the Sabbath while I was in Israel. It was one of the most peaceful evenings I have ever had. All in all, I try to find similarities and display true love to my Jewish brothers and sisters. In this, I have found true relationships emerging, even if we do not agree on every theological topic.

        Jamila

    • #2301
      Harvest Prude
      Participant

      I think I was most surprised by the emphasis that is placed not on salvation and the afterlife/going to Heaven but for seeking to live a holy life and please God while on earth. It was interesting to learn more about how even the Jewish and Christian concepts of how to live in this present age and how to think of the age to come vary widely as well. I also wonder if the harsh response some Christians had towards the church’s Jewish roots (that led to supersessionism and even sadly antisemitism) has led the church to throw the baby out with the bathwater in some respects. I wonder what aspects of Judaism that the church has lost sight of might be helpful to learn more about and seek to emphasize within Christianity. Lastly, I think the most fundamental difference Christians focus on—or that I knew about growing up—was that the Judaism doesn’t accept Jesus Christ as the Messiah. But on that note, I also found it extremely interesting and surprising that certain strains of Judaism that are more progressive do not believe the Messiah will be a person at all, but rather an age to come.

      • #2327
        Joseph Danaher
        Participant

        Thanks for your post, Harvest. I too wonder what Christianity as an institution has thrown away of true Christlikeness with its historical degradation of Judaism. I wonder if the notions of caring for the poor, the widow, the orphan, and the migrant are so neglected by many in Christianity today, if not outrightly disregarded (in the case of say advocacy for banning Syrian refugees for instance), precisely because of this. I don’t think Christ meant in any way to dismiss any of those listed prioritized groups of people. Additionally, I also did not know that some progressive strands of Judaism believe the Messiah to be an age to come.

    • #2316
      Patrick Bereit
      Participant

      Through this course, it struck me how both Jews and Christians can generally be divided between traditionalists and modernists. I have seen Orthodox and Hasidic Jews who already from the outside (just how they dress for example) appear quite different compared to progressive Jewish friends I know. There are certainly progressive and traditional Christian denominations and even within my own Catholic Faith (which of course emphasizes tradition and doctrine), I can seen how certain communities prefer traditional or modern liturgies and ways of understanding. Just the fact of realizing how Christians and our Jewish brothers and sisters share this aspect shows a sense of unity! I was thinking if other religions, like Islam and Hinduism, have this same traditional vs. progressive divide and while I think it is present, it doesn’t seem (on the outside) to as greatly effect the way they worship and view the world from each other.

      • #2755
        Kenneth C. Jackson
        Participant

        Patrick,
        Thanks for your point generally looking at the divisions in both religions. For me, the followers of both religions have missed out on the real issues. I want to focus on Christianity the one I belong where many of us have created for ourselves all kinds of divisions to the extent that we missed out on clothing the naked, feeding the hungry, shielding exposed and fighting for the poor and marginalized. It is the many divisions in Christianity that have given birth to schemism.

    • #2357

      I got really surprised to know the Jewish Messiah it will not be a GOD and He will abolish evil and will stablish goodness. The modernist Jews say it’s a age. It’s a huge difference between what Christians believes and Jews believes. As a Christian, I don’t agree with that but it was very interesting to know.

      • #2803
        Ilona Chebotareva
        Participant

        Ana, I was surprised by the fact that Traditionalist Jews don’t believe the Messiah will be God as well. The foremost reason being that the old testament never predicts that the Messiah would be God. It made me think of the passage of scripture where Jesus reads from the Isaiah scroll and tells the people in the synagogue and proclaiming the scripture fulfilled before their very eyes. But the people responded, “isn’t this Joseph’s son?” The duality of Jesus being God and Man, a prophesy fulfilled, was something that they weren’t able to accept.

    • #2730
      Hannah Straub
      Participant

      The difference between Christian and Jewish theology that was most surprising in these lectures was the different views on human nature. Jewish thought teaches that humans are good and can strive to follow God while Christianity traditionally ascribes to the depravity of all people. These differences posed thoughts for further study.

      I think there may be more in common between Jewish and Christian views of human nature. Both teach that humans are made in the image of God and both teach faith worked out by obedience. But I can’t say for sure without looking into it further.

      The differences most fascinating to me though stemmed from the history of Christianity. Hearing the way early Church fathers began melding in Greek and Pagan philosophy made a lot of sense. The Hebraic roots of Christianity were lost as more and more non-Jews joined the church. The question now is: how much of our Hebraic roots should we return to as the modern church?

    • #2752
      Kenneth C. Jackson
      Participant

      Yes! I have always felt that since Jesus came from a Jewish descent, the Jews would automatically believe his Messiah-ship. With all that God is doing for the Jewish people to date but refusing to believe his Messiah-ship is surprising to me. No wonder why Jesus Christ suffered from this own people. His words is now sinking to my heart, ‘Now Jesus himself had pointed out that a prophet has no honor in his own country’ (John 4:44). Christ also said ‘no prophet is accepted in his home town’ (Luke 4:16-30), and ‘Only in his home town and in his own house is a prophet without honor’ (Matt. 13:54-57), and ‘Jesus left there and went to his home town…Isn’t this Mary’s son and the brother of James…Jesus said to them, “Only in his home town, among his relatives and in his own house is a prophet without honor.”…he was amazed at their lack of faith’ (Mark 6:1-6). Personally, as leader, I have suffered and continue suffer same. For me, it is a situation to be more focused in our leadership and service to our own people. In addition, and concerning “Human nature” when the Jews say that “human nature is do what God commands” is surprising also. This is where Christians differ. However, all of what I have read on the similarities and differences has helped me to see the two religions through the eyes of Jesus Christ!

      • #2890
        Jamila White
        Participant

        Kenneth,

        Many Jews are actually coming to faith in Jesus as their Messiah. As one Messianic Jewish man put it, “Believing in Jesus as the Messiah was the most Jewish thing I could do. The New Testament is undeniably Jewish.” I have also found that the more I study while in seminary school, the more Jewish roots I see within the New Testament as well. This Messianic Jewish man made note that many Jews have misconceptions of the Christian faith and theology. I got a glimpse of this during a Shabbat dinner in Israel. We had a beautiful dialogue with the Israeli Jewish host. She had an honest question, which brought forth an amazing conversation. I believe that as long as we display the love of Christ, we can have sometimes difficult but amazing dialogue.

        Jamila

    • #2753
      Kenneth C. Jackson
      Participant

      Yes! I have always felt that since Jesus came from a Jewish descent, the Jews would automatically believe his Messiah-ship. With all that God is doing for the Jewish people to date but refusing to believe his Messiah-ship is surprising to me. No wonder why Jesus Christ suffered from this own people. His word is now sinking to my heart: In St. John 4:44, “For Jesus Himself testified that a prophet has no honor in his own country.” The was repeated in the entire gospel (Luke 4:16-30, Matt. 13:54-57, Mark 6:1-6). Personally, as leader, I have suffered and continue suffer same. For me, it is a situation to be more focused in our leadership and service to our own people. In addition, and concerning “Human nature” when the Jews say that “human nature is do what God commands” is surprising also. This is where Christians differ. However, all of what I have read on the similarities and differences has helped me to see the two religions through the eyes of Jesus Christ!

    • #2802
      Ilona Chebotareva
      Participant

      I was interested to hear that the Jewish and Christian understanding of human nature differs. “Traditionalist and Modernist Jews teach that human nature is free to do what God commands. Christians differ there, teaching original sin—the inborn tendency to be selfish—to prefer myself to God and others. This means we require rebirth and regeneration through Baptism and faith, as well as grace from God.”

      The difference in this understanding of our innate human nature raises a few questions. If Jewish theology doesn’t start from the standpoint of our human nature being sinful, by that logic, is what compels Jews to keep covenant with God different from what compels christians? How so? And if so, what does that say about how Jews and Christians perceive their role to be in the covenant? Is there a perspective of indebtedness that Christians have toward their part in the covenant, and a feeling of ownership that Jews approach being in covenant with God? Does this difference in understanding even matter? Does it change the way we chose to live our our covenant?

    • #2889
      Jamila White
      Participant

      The similarities and differences between Christian and Jewish theology did not surprise me, because I had knowledge since college of both theologies. In my junior year of college, I took a Philosophy of Religion course, which covered the major world religions. Studying the Bible and interacting with Jewish people here in America and Israel gave me a much deeper and real life understanding of the similarities and differences. It is important to note that both groups should not be treated as a monolith. When I was in Israel in June, I found so many differences among Jews concerning theology and the Christian faith. I learned the importance of real dialogue and answering questions out of sincere curiosity. I have recently come across quite a few Messianic Jews, which bring an interesting dynamic. I see more similarities than differences. I do find that Jews and Christians have an unique relationship than any other group of people.

      Jamila

    • #3002
      Deneisha Hollis
      Participant

      There are a lot of things that surprise me about the differences and similarities between Christians and Jewish theology. The first thing that surprises me is that the Modern Jews believe the return of the Messiah is an age instead of a person. As a Christian we are taught that Jesus will be coming back to judge all and that we have to remain faithful and live like Jesus would want us too. Jewish people think more of a symbolic statement as the return of God. A similarity that surprised me was the belief in the prophets that were in the old testament. I think that these prophets gave us a better understanding of why we worship God and how to get to heaven. Also both believe in a day of rest and that is something both the Torah and the Bible tell us. I think often we forget that whether we have the same way to practice our religion we ultimately want the same things from God.

    • #2011
      Tina Joji
      Participant

      Hi Dylan, thank you for your response. I similarly did not know the differences until a more recent age. It is interesting because anyone derived from the Bible, you would think are automatically Christians. That everyone believes in the birth, crucifixion, resurrection, and 2nd coming of our Christ Jesus. But I soon learned that this is not entirely the case, that many (Jews) do not believe in these components of the Word. I am glad that courses like these can help teach the differences and similarities between existing theologies.

    • #2019
      Dominic Gialdini
      Participant

      Hi Dylan, I also found the “Why Aren’t We Christians” article to be of interest. Some of the justifications seemed to be misguided insofar as the Jewish individual appeared to interpret Christianity in a manner that I would not say is completely accurate; however, this different understanding of Christianity makes sense when taking into account that the Jewish paradigm is significantly different. One thing to note is that Jewish tradition places emphasis on pleasing God in the present rather than striving for an eternal relationship in Heaven largely because the Old Testament does not talk about Heaven in the first place. I do think that there is something to be said (and admirable) about the Jews following their commandments without expectation of reward, as it helps to make the dynamic of their default relationship with God more altruistic. I am cognizant of the fact that my relationship with God is not always rooted in a spirit of unconditional, giving love, and these reflections cause me to strive to serve God not in order to be admitted into eternal bliss but rather (or also!) because it is right and just.

    • #2023
      Clay Shackelford
      Participant

      I thought the article titled “Why aren’t we Christians?” was interesting as well. I knew that Jews didn’t believe that Jesus was the Messiah, but now I feel like I have a better grasp on that.

      I think we also could learn from how Jews ask “How do I get closer to God?” before “How do I get saved?.” I think that both of these questions, but the former question is the purpose of the latter question. In other words, we are saved to be close to God.

    • #2082
      Michael Caplan
      Participant

      Dylan,

      I too was struck by the foundational difference in perceptions of human nature by Jewish and Christian anthropologies. Intriguingly I believe the Jewish perspective to actually already be incororated into the Christian one-one need only consider the words of Jesus that the first and greatest commandment is to love God and therefore follow his commandments. Furthermore, rather than see the Christian view as contrary to God’s establishment of the Law I believe the Christian anthropological perspective to be continuous with a proper understanding of the Fall and its ramifications for human nature. I am interested to learn more about modern Jewish (both Orthodox and Modernist) interpretations of the Fall and human nature.

    • #2098
      Madeline Hall
      Participant

      Hi Dylan,
      This is such a great point and so surprising. I find it quite fascinating the way the Jewish community views themselves in their relationship with God as well. The question of motivation is quite an interesting one. The Jew believes they are Chosen by the grace of God, and thus they must honor that relationship as God’s chosen people. I wonder how often the fear of punishment rather than love for a holy and perfect God is the motivation of seeking a relationship in the Christian church. I am interested to learn more about this as well.

    • #2012
      Tina Joji
      Participant

      Hi Thomas,

      Thank you for sharing your thoughts. I too, did not know about the differences between theologies. I automatically thought all believers agreed with the 2nd coming of Christ Jesus. My Passages Israel trip helped show me that there are a lot of varying beliefs and theologies. I hope I can learn more about these differences within the courses and retreat. I think it is important to learn all sides so that we can appropriately navigate complex conversations. God bless you and hope that God teaches you more and more about Himself daily.

    • #2013
      Tina Joji
      Participant

      Hi Thomas,

      Thank you for sharing your thoughts. I too, did not know about the differences between theologies. I automatically thought all believers agreed with the 2nd coming of Christ Jesus. My Passages Israel trip helped show me that there are a lot of varying beliefs and theologies. I hope I can learn more about these differences within the courses and retreat. I think it is important to learn all sides so that we can appropriately navigate complex conversations. God bless you and hope that God teaches you more and more about Himself daily.

    • #2025
      Clay Shackelford
      Participant

      I also thought that the part on the commandments in the new testament was really interesting and shocking. However, on the other hand, Jesus said that the entire law can be summed up into one “to love your neighbor as yourself.”

      I also think that this course has taught me about the value of the law. Jesus believed in the value of the law because he thought it was worth his life to fulfill it. Do I value the law like that? There’s so much to learn from Jewish theology.

    • #2084
      yasmin mata
      Participant

      Hi Thomas,

      Thank you for sharing, this section has definitely revealed a lot of new things to me too. I have so much to learn, and it is exciting- I agree with you I also assumed that Jewish theology was very similar to Christians and Jesus was the only thing that made them significantly different. I didn’t know that Jews believe that the Messiah will be a man or an age, not God. The 800 commandments of the new testament versus the 613 commandments of the old testament were also a shocker and I was curious to know what they are so I looked them up and they truly cover every phase of life in relationship with God and others (Matthew 22:37-40) confirming Jesus words.

    • #2138
      Cristina Varela
      Participant

      Hi Thomas,

      Its kind of a joke amongst Catholics that there must be divine intervention for us to have survived 2,000 + years. I never even considered that the Jews are in a similar boat- always prevailing even though modern statistics would deem it impossible.

      I don’t know why I was also surprised to find the diversity within the Jewish community when us Christians have infinitely more sects!

    • #2183
      Katelyn Hernandez
      Participant

      Hey Thomas,
      I found this difference particularly interesting as well. Growing up with minimal exposure to Judaism, I believed that when the Jews would claim the Messiah he would be God, just as we perceive Christ. Learning about the commands is also very new to me. Growing up my church community pressed that Jesus freed us from living under the land of the Law. When in truth we have many freedoms but still are commanded through the new testament- just in a different way.

    • #2097
      Madeline Hall
      Participant

      This is such a great point. I think it is human nature to put God in a box and interpret things the way we want to see them. I recently watched the Chosen, and most people were in disbelief of Jesus because He is not how they thought God would present Himself. It is a challenge for me to be open to the ways God can move.

    • #2303
      Harvest Prude
      Participant

      Hi Dominic, I’m struck by the clarity of your response and explanation of the basic differences in the paradigm Christians and Jews hold towards their relationship to God. It reminds me of the book (referenced in this course) Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions that lays out how one’s paradigm can blind/prevent people from understanding or incorporating facts or narratives that are outside one’s system of beliefs. Thus, people that have different paradigms towards God, the universe, one’s created purpose, etc., can end up talking past each other and misunderstanding the other, unincorporated paradigm. I wonder how much of the emphasis that Christians place on say, the afterlife, vs the Jewish emphasis placed on honorable living in this present life–can prevent us from fully understanding and appreciating each other’s motivations and worldviews.

    • #2685
      Evan Crain
      Participant

      Dominic – I noticed the inaccuracies/misunderstandings of the article’s argument as well. It made me realize how often I criticize other beliefs on the same basis – using reason, arguing without correct assumptions. For every point made in the article, I could rationally refute it. That, and the historical Jesus is impugnable (i.e. not a freak/cult leader/scam artist/etc). Which leaves the crux of discussion to one thing: faith. Do you believe Jesus is who he says he is, or do you not? The article’s conclusion is ultimately to reject Jesus as the Messiah, which, again, is a matter of faith and not reason.

    • #2731
      Hannah Straub
      Participant

      Clay,

      I so appreciate your comment about the different questions that Jews ask. Christians today tend to focus on salvation as a moment or psychological decision, but Jewish thought leans more toward salvation as a process and way of life that leads a person closer to God. I love that you reference the Jewish question ‘How do I get closer to God?” I think that is a more holistic question and we could learn a lot from asking it.

    • #2754
      Kenneth C. Jackson
      Participant

      Dylan,
      Thanks for your point that focuses on “Foundational difference in perceptions of human by Jewish and Christian anthropologies.” I have always thought that Christian borrowed this idea from the Jewish anthropologists. But doing this course and reading that Christians differ with the Jewish perception concerning “human nature” was an eye opener for me. And I strongly believe that God’s free given to the first human race was not given in vacuum. I think the Jewish perception looks at it based on vacuum-related idea. This where many people or leaders miss it However, Christians sees it as something that needs to be evaluated and monitored.

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