This was an immensely informative course. From both the course content and the above reading, my primary takeaway is that Lebanon has a long but not-largely discussed history of resiliency. The dynamics in Lebanon are complex, and these are complicated further by recent challenges: economic struggles, the hijacking by Iran via Hezbollah, the port explosion, and the pandemic. All of these struggles intersect with one another, and understanding how factors like these (both current and historical) work together to create the current political and economic climate is critical to forward progress. I found Malik’s policy recommendations to be helpful in developing my own understanding of this as well. I believe there is hope for preserving a pluralistic Lebanon in the future, though I think it would take across-the-board support. To create a pluralistic society, one needs a culture shift that is supported both by policy, systems of power, and people on the ground.