In the 20th century, the Catholic Church took several significant steps to address anti-Jewish teachings and culture:
1. Second Vatican Council (1962-1965): One of the most pivotal moments was the Second Vatican Council, which produced the document “Nostra Aetate.” This document denounced anti-Semitism and affirmed the importance of mutual respect and dialogue between Catholics and Jews. It encouraged a more positive and understanding relationship between the Church and the Jewish community.
2. Reevaluation of liturgy and teachings: The Church also revised its liturgy, removing certain elements that were perceived as fostering anti-Jewish sentiments. This included changes in prayers and texts that had historically contributed to negative stereotypes of Jews.
3. Educational efforts: The Church initiated educational programs and seminars to raise awareness about the historical context of anti-Jewish teachings and to promote interfaith dialogue. These efforts aimed to combat prejudice and promote understanding.
4. Papal statements and visits: Several popes in the 20th century made public statements condemning anti-Semitism and reaffirming the Church’s commitment to fostering better relations with the Jewish community. Papal visits to synagogues and Holocaust memorials further symbolized this commitment.
These steps marked a significant shift in the Church’s approach, distancing itself from historical anti-Jewish sentiments and actively working towards a more positive and inclusive relationship with the Jewish community.